Friday, March 13, 2020
Tabula rasa Essay Example
Tabula rasa Essay Example Tabula rasa Paper Tabula rasa Paper The role of genetics, the environment, the child, and the need for past as prologue What does the past as prologue mean? The degree to which it is deemed necessary to consider the past to understand the present What does the born this way model emphasize? Role of genetics in development What does the born this way model discredit? The environment What did behaviorism represent? Children as passive recipients of colonization influences Which model was the most popular when Pigged first came into the picture? Nurture model Who said that humans are blank slates? John Locke What is the term used for blank slate? Tabular Rasa What does the blank slate theory mean? Individuals are built without built-in mental content and that their knowledge moms from experience and perception What did Watson believe to be true about why children develop the way that they do? Observing children, rather than speculating on their ancestry Did Watson agree with John Lockers blank slate theory? Yes What was Watson view on development in general? Complex motives and behaviors can be built upon via classical conditioning What was the study Watson used to prove his point? Little Albert and conditioned fear Watson famous quote was known for what? No matter who you are and where you come from, you can turn into anything What is classical conditioning? The association of some behaviors with specific stimuli and even show how some stimuli that now elicit responses might not have done so once in the past How did Watson make the little boy afraid of rats? He made an obnoxious sound every time the boy reached for the rat, he was not afraid of rats before but became so with time Why was classical conditioning not a successful theory? Hard to test scientifically, absurdly complicated as an explanation for motivated behavior (usually just a simple emotional response) What did skinner believe to be true about how children develop? The environment was primary source of explanation for behavior, useless to study the brain and thinking processes What did skinner emphasize the most when it came to understanding thoughts? We have brains, but you did not need to understand thoughts to understand behavior What did skinner call thought? The black box What did skinner believe to be true about understanding behavior? Relations between what goes on in the environment and how the organism behaves What was different about what Watson believed and what skinner believed? Skinner didnt think that classical conditioning was all that important , he leveled that behavior is predicted by rewards and punishments What is reinforcement? Things happen more frequently if they are rewarded What is extinction? When rewards are taken away, the behavior IS likely to stop happening What is punishment? Instead of something satisfying happening, something adverse followed What did bandeau believe to be true about development? People learn things observationally and imitating others (role model) What is the critical distinction in knowledge and performance? Even if we know how to do something we dont always do it What did bandeau believe about the brain? Behavior is cognitively based What did bandeau believe to be the most powerful motive in development? Self-efficacy: ones belief in his/her ability to control their own life, (it is not what they know but what they believe about themselves) What the dominant model in the mid asss? Environmental model What was the name of the dominant model before Pigged? Mechanistic child: children develop as a machine, predictable What did Pigged assume about a child? Active participant, relationship with the world is adaptive, child is creating equilibrium, constrained by what the child already knows What kind of thinkers did Pigged believe children were? Fundamentally different kind of thinkers, not just inexperienced and immature Pigged on A-not-B? ; Babies fail at this task because they do not have the concept of Object permanence. For 8-1 a-month-olds, an object is acting and sensing. Its location, the search itself, is part of the object, Babies older than 12 months, succeed at the task because they are able to form and abstract mental representation of the object. What was the key to Piglets behavior about young children? Young children were simply not less skilled or learned about denied objects, they cannot separate the concept of an object from the actions it takes to retrieve it from under a cloth (A Not Be) What is the self- determination theory? While people are often motivated to act by external rewards such as money, prizes, and acclaim (known as extrinsic motivation), self-determination theory focuses primarily on internal sources of motivation such as a need to gain knowledge or independence (known as intrinsic motivation). According to self-determination theory, people need to feel the following in order to achieve such psychological growth Competence: People need to gain mastery f tasks and learn different skills Connection or Relatedness: People need to experience a sense of belonging and attachment to other people.